Pope Benedict XVI called Tuesday for a new
world financial order guided by ethics and the search for the
common good, denouncing the profit-at-all-cost mentality blamed for
bringing about the global financial meltdown.
In the third encyclical of his pontificate, Benedict pressed for
reform of the United Nations and international economic and
financial institutions to give poorer countries more of a say in
"There is urgent need (for) a true world political authority"
that can manage the global economy, guarantee the environment is
protected, ensure world peace and bring about food security for the
poor, he wrote.
The document "Charity in Truth," was in the works for two
years, and its publication was repeatedly delayed to incorporate
the fallout from the crisis. It was released a day before leaders
of the Group of Eight industrialized nations meet to coordinate
efforts to deal with the global meltdown, signaling a clear Vatican
bid to prod leaders for a financially responsible future and what
it considers a more socially just society.
"The economy needs ethics in order to function correctly - not
any ethics, but an ethics which is people centered," Benedict
The German-born Benedict, 82, has spoken out frequently about
the impact of the crisis on the poor, particularly in Africa, which
he visited earlier this year. But the 144-page encyclical, one of
the most authoritative documents a pope can issue, marked a new
level of church teaching by linking the Vatican's long-standing
social doctrine on caring for the poor with current events.
While acknowledging that the globalized economy has "lifted
billions of people out of misery," Benedict accused the unbridled
growth of recent years of causing unprecedented problems as well,
citing mass migration flows, environmental degradation and a
complete loss of trust in the world market.
He urged wealthier countries to increase development aid to poor
countries to help eliminate world hunger, saying peace and security
depended on it. He specified that aid should go to agricultural
development to improve infrastructure, irrigation systems,
transport and sharing of agricultural technology.
At the same time, he demanded that industrialized nations reduce
their energy consumption, both to better care for the environment
and to let the poorer have access to energy resources.
"One of the greatest challenges facing the economy is to
achieve the most efficient use - not abuse - of natural resources,
based on a realization that the notion of 'efficiency' is not
value-free," he wrote.
Benedict said that the drive to outsource work to the cheapest
bidder had endangered the rights of workers, and he demanded that
workers be allowed to organize in unions to protect their rights
and guarantee steady, decent employment.
Benedict called for a whole new financial order - "a profoundly
new way of understanding business enterprise" - that respects the
dignity of workers and looks out for the common good by
prioritizing ethics and social responsibility over dividend
The Rev. Drew Christiansen, editor of the Jesuit monthly America
and a leading social ethicist, said he was most intrigued by the
pope's call for a new sector of society to work alongside
government, market and civil society: for-profit entities that work
for the common good, which Christiansen suggested could include
"fair trade" product makers and micro-finance institutions.
"I am not sure these enterprises yet constitute a sector of
economic life," Christiansen wrote on his blog. "But they are
harbingers of a different, conscientious kind of economics that
would not repeat the mistakes of the last 30 years."
Kirk Hanson, a business ethics professor at Santa Clara
University, said that while the encyclical went into some detail
about the rights of workers and the duties of the state in
protecting those rights, there was precious little about how an
actual CEO leader should go about business.
"It's almost as if the church has so little trust in business
leaders that it speaks to the political leaders urging regulation
and the consumers urging voting with their buying power," said
Hanson, who chaired hearings leading up to a similar U.S. Catholic
bishops' statement on capitalism and social justice in the 1980s.
Benedict has written two previous encyclicals in his four years
as pope: "God is Love" in 2006 and "Saved by Hope" in 2007.
The pope's focus on world finance raised questions about the
state of the Vatican's own books.
The Vatican was implicated in the 1980s collapse of Banco
Ambrosiano, in which the Vatican's bank was the major shareholder,
and it agreed to pay $250 million to Ambrosiano's creditors, while
denying any wrongdoing.
At the start of the meltdown in October, a top Vatican bank
official assured that its deposits were safe and had no liquidity
problems, saying the bank had stayed away from derivatives, the
financial instruments blamed in part for the crisis.
Other officials have said 80 percent of the Vatican's
investments are in low-yield government bonds and 20 percent in
stocks and that the Vatican does not invest in companies that
produce arms or contraceptives.
The Vatican in its annual financial statement issued Saturday
said it ran a deficit in 2008 for the second straight year, posting
a euro900,000 ($1.28 million) loss, compared with a loss of euro9.06
million a year earlier.
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