PARIS (AP) - President Nicolas Sarkozy declared Monday that the
Islamic burqa is not welcome in France, branding the face-covering,
body-length gown as a symbol of subservience that suppresses
women's identities and turns them into "prisoners behind a
But there was a mixed message in the tough words: an admission
that the country's long-held principle of ethnic assimilation -
which insists that newcomers shed their traditions and adapt to
French culture - is failing because it doesn't give immigrants and
their French-born children a fair chance.
In a high-profile speech to lawmakers in the historic chateau at
Versailles, Sarkozy said the head-to-toe Muslim body coverings were
in disaccord with French values - some of the strongest language
against burqas from a European leader at a time when some Western
officials have been seeking to ease tensions with the Muslim world.
"In our country, we cannot accept that women be prisoners
behind a screen, cut off from all social life, deprived of all
identity," Sarkozy said to extended applause of the lawmakers
gathered where French kings once held court.
"The burqa is not a religious sign, it's a sign of
subservience, a sign of debasement - I want to say it solemnly,"
he said. "It will not be welcome on the territory of the French
Some Muslim leaders interpret the Quran to require that women
wear a headscarf, niqab or burqa in the presence of a man who is
not their husband or close relative.
France is home to Western Europe's largest population of
Muslims, estimated at about 5 million. A small but growing group of
French women wear burqas and niqabs, which either cloak the entire
body or cover everything but the eyes.
Critics fear the issue of full-body coverings, which only
involves a tiny minority of French Muslims, could increase
discrimination against all Muslims who display their faith in any
Dalil Boubakeur, director of the largest Paris mosque, said
Sarkozy's push to keep out the burqa is typical of French culture,
but worried that he might inflame tensions with Muslims.
The president wanted to show that "the rules of life in France
- and that you can just bring in unjustified traditions,"
"But you have to hope - inshallah (God willing) - that there
won't be any ill-feeling, controversies or incidents in this
confrontation between an Eastern idea and Western life," Boubakeur
told the AP in a telephone interview. "Or then eastern Muslims
will have to return to the Orient ... completely unable to
assimilate and uncomfortable in a Western system."
But Sarkozy also said immigrants face economic challenges in
France, and the government needs to do more to help them.
"Who doesn't see that our integration model isn't working any
more?" Sarkozy said. "Instead of producing equality, it produces
inequality. Instead of producing cohesion, it creates resentment."
The unemployment rate for immigrants and their French-born
children is higher than the national average. Many children of
immigrants complain of discrimination, saying they get passed over
for jobs because they have "foreign-sounding" names. Frustration
of many children of north African and black immigrants boiled over
in France's three-week wave of riots in 2005.
The burqa comments made up only a few lines of Sarkozy's speech,
which focused on the global economic crisis and a Cabinet shake-up
expected to be announced Wednesday. The address was the first by a
French president to parliament in 136 years; the last was in 1873 -
before lawmakers banned the practice to protect the separation of
powers and keep the president in check. That ban was scrapped last
In France, the terms "burqa" and "niqab" often are used
interchangeably. A burqa is a full-body covering worn largely in
Afghanistan - with only a mesh screen over the eyes. A niqab is a
full-body veil, often black, with slits for the eyes.
Muslim groups and government officials say it's hard to know how
many women wear burqas and niqabs in France - though estimated to
be at least in the hundreds. They are far less prevalent than
simpler Muslim head scarves.
A 2004 law banned wearing the Muslim head scarf at public
schools, along with Jewish skullcaps and large Christian crosses.
That law sparked fierce debate both at home and abroad.
In a visit to Normandy earlier this month, President Barack
Obama addressed France's headscarf ban, saying countries handle
such issues with their national sensitivities and histories in
mind, before adding: "I will tell you that in the United States
our basic attitude is, is that we're not going to tell people what
The French government has been divided on a burqa ban.
Immigration Minister Eric Besson said a ban would only "create
tensions," while junior minister for human rights Rama Yade said
she was open to a ban if it was aimed at protecting women forced to
wear the burqa.
The burqa has come under criticism in some parts of Europe. In
2003, Sweden's National Agency for Education gave schools the right
to ban pupils from wearing burqas if it interferes with the
teaching or safety regulations.
The Dutch government last year described the burqa and other
clothing that covers the face, as "undesirable," but the ruling
coalition stopped short of attempting a ban amid concerns of
possible religious discrimination. But the government did say it
would work toward banning burqas in schools and among public
servants, saying that they stand in the way of good communication.
Later Monday, Sarkozy hosted a state dinner with Sheik Hamad Bin
Jassem Al Thani of Qatar - a Persian Gulf state where women often
wear niqabs. The emir was joined by one of his wives, Sheika Mozah,
whose head was covered in an elegant turban.
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